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Open- and closed-ended terms

2.56 The term “consisting of” is generally interpreted to be closed ended – the feature will be selected only from the listed alternatives. Thus, “a combination consisting of components A and B” would not include a combination of components A, B and C.

2.57 The term “comprising” is generally interpreted as being open-ended – other alternatives might be included. For example, “a combination comprising components A and B” would include a combination of components A, B and C. The terms “contains” and “including” are similarly considered open-ended terms.

2.58 The term “consisting essentially of” is is construed to include the specified materials or steps , as well as other materials or steps that do not materially affect the working of the claimed invention (T 0759/10, Raision Nutrition Ltd/ Texturizing Compositions for use in fat blends in food).